By Sadegh Imani Yengejeh, Seyedeh Alieh Kazemi, Andreas Öchsner
This quantity offers a complete procedure for categorizing carbon nanotubes and their alterations when it comes to nano sheets, nanotubes, microscopic and atomic ameliorations. furthermore, the fabric and geometric houses of those nano-configurations are addressed. finally, it introduces a few universal software program applications for geometry new release and a number of other advertisement finite point programs.
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Additional resources for A Primer on the Geometry of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Modifications
2 Kink Hetero-Junctions As it is noticeable, the pentagon-heptagon pair defects of straight hetero-junctions both appear in one side of the configuration. In contrast, the pentagon-heptagon pair defects of kink hetero-junctions with bending angles are placed separated in the front and back side of these specific structures. 4 shows a kink hetero-junction which is constructed by the junction of an armchair and zigzag homogenous CNT. The geometry of a hetero-junction CNT is more sophisticated as compared with that of a CNT owing to the irregular configuration of the connecting region.
In the case of the straight hetero-junctions, the axis of the wider CNT is defined as the reference axis of the junction because of the fact that the two fundamental CNTs of a hetero-junction are able to align on a planar surface. 1 Macroscopic Modifications 33 hetero-junctions with bending formation, the angle between two homogeneous CNTs joined by a kink junction is variable from 12° to 45° which can be changed based on the chirality of the constituent CNTs. The angle can be made smaller by placing the pentagon and heptagon closer to each other .
Li and Chou  applied the harmonic approximation and used further simplification to derive the energy expressions. 2. 2 Equivalence of molecular mechanics and structural mechanics for covalent and noncovalent interactions between carbon atoms. Molecular mechanics model (left) and structural mechanics model (right) for elongation, bending and torsion were obtained as a function of three force field constants (available in literature) for stretching, bond angle bending and torsional resistance .
A Primer on the Geometry of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Modifications by Sadegh Imani Yengejeh, Seyedeh Alieh Kazemi, Andreas Öchsner