By Harland G. Tompkins
A User's consultant to Ellipsometry will permit readers to maneuver past constrained turn-key functions of ellipsometers. as well as its complete discussions of the dimension of movie thickness and optical constants in movie, it additionally considers the trajectories of the ellipsometric parameters Del and Psi and the way alterations in fabrics have an effect on parameters. This quantity additionally addresses using polysilicon, a fabric in general hired within the microelectronics undefined, and the results of substrate roughness. 3 appendices supply priceless references.
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Additional resources for A User's Guide to Ellipsometry
1 The Rotating Null Instrument The instruments already described have elements which are manually rotated by the operator. For many instruments in use today, however, under microprocessor control, the instrument rotates its own elements as part of its operation. There are basically two different types of rotating element instruments. One of these is a null instrument and is illustrated in Figure 2-10. When the analyzer is rotated about the light beam, the photomultiplier will detect a sinusoidally varying intensity.
In this case, we sputter etched one of the thicker samples with a knife-edge in place. We used AES to determine when the interface was reached. A stylus instrument was then used to measure the oxide thickness and to obtain a rough (± 30%) calibration of the sputtering rate. This rough calibration was then used with some of the very thin samples. A 30% error on a 1000 Ä film will represent 300 Ä whereas on a 20 Ä native oxide, it only represents 6 Ä. In the analysis described below, we only used the AES-determined thickness on the very thin films.
The fact that k is smaller causes the spiral to close more slowly. To further illustrate this, we hypothesize a material with an even smaller value of k, which is more characteristic of a semiconductor than a metal. 07°. Because k is much smaller, the spiral closes very slowly, with large maximum and minimum excursions. For even smaller values of k, the trajectory may pass through zero and eventually cover a large portion of the Del/Psi region. The limiting case, of course, is for k = 0 where the spiral never goes to the target value.
A User's Guide to Ellipsometry by Harland G. Tompkins