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Test rigs such as the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and the drop-weight tower are common. 18), strain rates of up to 104 s21 are possible by use of small specimens (about 1 mm long). A further assembly can be a gas or electromagnetic gun, which can provide a very high loading velocity, strain rates up to 106 s21 and high pressure. The disadvantage is that the measuring possibilities are limited. (A) (B) G A ... Frame B Strain gauges B ... Falling weight C ... Punch with force measurement Punch D ...

28). The shear stress generates shear bands that determine the fragmentation pattern. 29). The failure mode of such a cylinder can occur by two fracture modes: tensile fracture or fracture by adiabatic shearing. The dominating fracture mode depends on the material properties and on the existing stress distribution in the cylinder. According to Bai and Dodd [8], the stress and strain distributions are not homogeneous at different axial and radial positions in the test cylinder. 27 Contained fragment configuration used in SRI International, according to Wittman et al.

The shear width is almost the same, but the total diameter is larger. 11A). 10 Hat-shaped specimen, according to Minnaar and Zhou [34]. 11 Hat-shaped specimen, according to Pursche [36] (A) and Meyer and Kru¨ger [33] (B). 11B). 94). By modifying diameters, where the punch diameter is larger than the hole diameter, different compression shear-stress states (hydrostatic pressure) are produced. This stress state hindered the failure, and brittle material can be analysed concerning the susceptibility to adiabatic shearing.

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