By Frans Badin
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Additional resources for Hybrid vehicles : from components to system
For the other use conditions, the gradient of the straight lines is lower since the inertia forces have a lower effect on the global energy balance. On our reference thermal vehicle, as with all vehicles, the higher energy required during the traction phases necessarily induces higher fuel consumption. Nevertheless, the consumption increase coefficient is slightly less than the energy coefficient, since the engine is on average more highly charged and therefore works more efficiently. 10 Effect of mass on the traction and braking energies (a) and on operation of the engine (fuel consumption and average efficiency) (b) - urban Artemis cycle.
This may prove more especially difficult since, in most cases, a single electric machine is used for the both wheels on the same axle (coupling being obtained by a mechanical differential), while the above functions often require individual wheel braking control. , 2009]. Lastly, special attention must be paid to management of downgraded modes: collaborative braking systems can be classified as by-wire systems. The system must therefore be designed (especially the rest position of solenoid valves) so that in case of any failure, especially electrical, normal hydraulic braking can be restored.
10 quantifies this effect on the three cycles (caution: this time, the change coefficients are given for every 100 W of auxiliary power, assuming that this power is drawn off continuously and not intermittently during the cycle). 13 Effect of the power of the auxiliaries on operation of the internal combustion engine (consumption and average efficiency) - rural roads Artemis cycle. 10. e. 34 L/100 km in urban use for our reference vehicle. 5 t in Europe. The purpose of this homologation is to: - check that the emissions of regulated pollutants (HC, CO, ΝΟ χ and particulates) are below the authorized limit on the homologation date (UNECE regulation R83) (see Appendix 3); - calculate the vehicle fuel consumption and C 0 2 emissions (UNECE regulation R101) (see Appendix 3).
Hybrid vehicles : from components to system by Frans Badin