By Pim de Voogt

ISBN-10: 3319512420

ISBN-13: 9783319512426

ISBN-10: 3319512439

ISBN-13: 9783319512433

Reviews of Environmental infection and Toxicology makes an attempt to supply concise, severe studies of well timed advances, philosophy and critical parts of finished or wanted pastime within the overall box of xenobiotics, in any phase of our surroundings, in addition to toxicological implications.

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Extra resources for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 242

Example text

To assess the human health risk of heavy metals, it is necessary to calculate the level of human exposure to that metal by tracing the route of exposure of pollutant to human body. e. soil, water and air. g. crops and vegetables) having metal contamination (Khan et al. 2008c, 2013a). The health risks due to toxic metals are primarily associated with the exposure dose and time. K. Shakir et al. media. However, it is documented that toxic metals even if within the permissible limits may pose adverse effects to public health, particularly when more than one toxic metal are present.

In Pakistan, a diverse range of sources such as industrial effluents and emissions, agricultural practices, domestic effluents, atmospheric deposition, vehicular emissions, mining, smelting and different natural phenomena are contributing to toxic metal pollution. 2 Industrial Sources Industries release toxic metals in different ways which contaminate the environment. In Pakistan, various industries like petrochemicals, textiles, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, food industries, steels, oil mills, leather tannings, fertilizer factories, and sugar industries are the main sources of environmental pollution (Sial et al.

A community-based study hypothesized that high levels of Hg in blood can be the cause of hypertension in the Pakistani population (Rahman et al. 2006). 10 Iron (Fe) Risk assessment of Fe (Tables 7–11 and Fig. 1) does not reveal any risk in any part of the country through any media. In human blood Fe concentration in the populations of Karachi, Lower Dir and Peshawar were found to the maximum level (Jan et al. 2011; Mumtaz et al. 1999). Fe is an essential element needed for the normal growth but exposure to higher concentrations can cause heart diseases (Milman et al.

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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 242 by Pim de Voogt


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