By Judith Van Leeuwen
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Extra resources for Who Greens the Waves?: Changing Authority in the Environmental Governance of Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Production
Actors are the ‘carriers’ of the discourses, because they express and reproduce the dominant discourse through their language and during interaction with other actors. Discourses thus also shape the interaction between actors, because the discourse 2. Changing spheres of authority in governance 37 gives understanding and meaning to issues, the problem at hand and possible policy solutions. Discourses also define power relations between actors, because through a dominant interpretative framework and jargon certain solutions are pushed forward while other solutions are overlooked or neglected.
These three features will be further operationalized in the next section. 2 The organization of a sphere of authority The first element of the organization of a sphere of authority is actors. In discussing this dimension of a policy arrangement, Arts and colleagues (2000) initially focused on how actors form coalitions. However, just like they have done in their most recent publication (Liefferink, 2006), I want to lay the emphasis on the actors themselves. There is no doubt that these actors will enter into coalitions during decision-making processes.
Hence, a mixture of governmental officials, industry actors and environmental NGOs has been interviewed. The amount of interviews for each case was not decided a priori, but was a consequence of the point of saturation. When it was clear that information on all spheres of authority was gathered, no more interviews were done. The result has been that a relatively high number of governmental officials have been interviewed for this research. In the offshore oil and gas case, governmental officials of those governmental agencies involved in regulating the offshore industry in the Netherlands, Norway and the UK were interviewed.
Who Greens the Waves?: Changing Authority in the Environmental Governance of Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Production by Judith Van Leeuwen